Andrew's blog

Torsional Vibrations

In my world of harmonica reeds, torsional vibrations is not a thing.


Sure, torsional vibrating is a great explanation for what makes a harp squeal when someone is struggling to play overbends or even regular draw and blow bends. Instead of just moving up and down, the reed also wiggles from side to side.

But torsional vibrations is just another word for squealing and squealing happens because the reed doesn't close the slot properly. It's really as simple as that. There isn't a special kind of squealing or a library of specific remedies to address a vast array of different squeals.

Harmonica reeds squeal because they don't close the slot properly.

Reed work (and obligatory Framework) should fix that. Make the slot straight and then make the whole length of the reed pass through the slot all at the same time.

Some harps are more prone to squealing than others. Why is that? It's still because their reeds don't close the slot properly.

Addressing the issue with wax or other foreign substances is not optimal because it changes the timbre and response and lowers the available range. It can add variability to the pitch and the reed tuning will drift.

Will embossing help? No. Not in of itself.

I hope that helps.


Years ago, customizers (or folks who thought of themselves as customizers) would spread falsehoods to confuse and frustrate their competition and to build up their reputation.

Myths long-since debunked are still spreading like they are bits of secret knowledge that someone doesn't want you to know.

Customizing the diatonic harmonica takes skill, patience, high standards and common sense. There are no real shortcuts. Putting in the time and effort needed to make the slots perfect before doing reed work *is* the shortcut.

Stuff in Bulk

Are you a customizer or harmonica service provider? We can work together - I offer deals to save you money on combs and tools.

Dark Combs™

I provide combs to customizers and harp techs worldwide. I offer customizer pricing on my combs. Click here for details. These are for use in your finished product and not for individual sale.


I provide tools and support to Harmonica Service Providers.

Service Provider Kit

Custom Marine Band Cover Choices

I offer several options for covers on my custom Marine Band Deluxe harmonicas. They are all excellent.

All of these photos are of the exact same Marine Band harmonica. A Marine Band is a Marine Band regardless of what's written on the cover plate.

The default Marine Band Deluxe covers are exactly the same as Marine Band Crossover covers except for what's engraved on the top plate. Both Marine Band Deluxe and Crossover covers have more rounded corners and are a little taller than Marine Band 1896 covers (not shown).

They shape the sound in the same way as the reference-standard 1896 model but there is less chance of the lower draw reeds hitting the cover plate when you play with intensity.

Hohner Rocket covers are as tall as Marine Band Deluxe and Crossover cover plates. They also have nicely rounded corners. The side vents are larger than the Marine Band models. You may notice a louder sound when you play acoustic harmonica because of the way the sound is shaped as well as the side vents.

Hohner Rocket AMP and Rocket Low covers have no side vents. The sound is more focused which is ideal for players who mostly play amplified using a cupped mic.

The Backs of Marine Band Deluxe and Marine Band Crossover covers are wide open.

The Backs of Hohner Rocket, Rocket AMP and Rocket Low are also wide open. Their edges are sleeker.

Every day is reed work day

Every day is reed work day. I work on shaping reeds just about every day.

"True customizing always involves painstaking adjustment of reeds and reed plates; true custom harmonicas are like fine wine – they take time to make and very hard to come by, as demand far outstrips supply."
-HOHNER AFFILIATED CUSTOMIZERS, "What is customization?"

If I skip doing any reed work for a day or two, I get rusty.

If I have lots of reed work to do and it's just not working at that particular moment - like when my fingers won't cooperate with my brain - I make a cup of tea or work on something else and come back to it. You can't force it.

Sides and Back of my Dark Combs™

I've transitioned to a new finish on the sides and backs of my combs. It's lighter in color and a little shinier than the former one. It's still matte so don't worry! The harp won't slip out of your hands.

With time, it will wear in and darken like the former finish. I still have some inventory with the former darker finish. There will be a mix of the two for the next month or two.

You can darken the new finish if you like by applying some mineral oil, vaseline or even chapstick.

The front tines are the same as before.

Customization Stack

There is a logical and efficient way to work on harmonicas.

The Customization Stack is a depiction of the organisation of tasks. You can do any of these tasks separately but you will get better results with much less effort if you "work the stack" from the ground up.

For example:
- Most things affect the tuning of the reeds so it makes sense to do tuning last.
- It's not possible to adjust a reed perfectly if the slot is warped, curved or off-centre. It makes sense to take care of those problems before doing reed work.

Framework is done first and it includes making all the pieces flat, airtight, and fit together perfectly so that they all vibrate together. The slots must provide a solid frame for the reed to swing through. The reeds must be perfectly centred.

Reed work is the adjustment of the reed so that it passes through the slot from base to tip all at the same time. Gapping only considers the height of the tip of the reed. Reed work considers the height of the reed at every point.

You will get the most accurate tuning if the reeds are responsive and all play consistently.

Hohner Flex Case M

I can ship an order of several custom harmonicas in a Hohner Flex Case M instead of individual plastic boxes. The Flex case holds up to 7 instruments.

Folks often discard the individual plastic or vinyl cases I ship them in. I would like to avoid waste and offer you a case you will actually use. The Flex Case M is very well designed. It protects the instruments and allows them to dry properly when not in use.

A small extra fee may apply.

How to play the full chromatic scale on a diatonic harmonica

Standard Richter tuning offers a lot of possibilities to make music. You have easy access to some useful chords, splits and octaves, you have a clean major scale in the middle octave and soulful draw bends and blow bends on the lower and upper octaves.

How do draw and blow bends work?

The draw bends on holes 1 to 4 and hole 6 use resonance to make one reed slow down (and eventually stop) and make the other reed move. As you lower the pitch of the 2 draw for example, the draw reed slows down and the *blow* reed starts to move. As you continue to lower the pitch to hit the next semitone bend, the draw reed will stop moving altogether and the blow reed will take over the work. This is a dual reed bend.

Blow bends on holes 8, 9 and 10 are the same but because the pitch of the blow note is higher than the draw note, the breath pattern is inverted and the bend is a blow bend, not a draw bend.

These are "regular" bends. Regular bends sound strong because they are dual reed bends and they are fairly easy to play. With a little practice most players can bend notes effectively on any working harmonica.

With unbend notes and "regular" bends, you can play various scales in different positions.

There's no other instrument that has quite the same connection between the player and the instrument. It's the draw bends on the low-end of the harmonica that give it it's distinctive sound.

You can extend the number of available notes on the diatonic harmonica further. By adding in the missing notes it is possible to play a complete three octave chromatic scale.

Overbends are one way to play these missing notes.

An overblow or and overdraw is a single reed bend. Together they are called overbends and they are different than "regular" bends.

You play an overblow on a hole where the draw reed is higher than the blow reed (holes 1-6); you blow air and in the same way you use resonance to slow down a reed to create a regular bend, you use resonance to stop the blow reed and allow the *draw* reed to make a sound. It will pop out a pitch about a semitone higher.

The same thing goes with an overdraw - you draw bend on a hole where the blow reed is higher than the draw reed.

"Regular bends" bend down - they provide notes that are lower than the unbent note. They play the notes between the blow and draw reeds. Overbends bend up - they provide notes that start a semitone above the pitch of the higher pitched reed.

A good way to learn to play overbends is to take the covers off a harp and mute certain reeds. For example, put your finger on the 4 blow slot and try playing the 4 blow. Nothing will happen unless you "feel around" with your embouchure. Try creating an air pocket in the front of your mouth as you play the note.

Once you get the right size pocket, the resonance will match the pitch you need and the *draw* reed will start to play the 4 OB note.

Reeds don't really like to stand still. Overbends tend to squeal when played on harmonicas that are not set up to play them well. It can happen that overbends can be played on stock harps but it's not a realistic expectation; most instruments will need some setting up to play overbends reliably. You can "cheat" and "roll off" the draw note to hit the overblow much more reliably but this limits the application of the note. Try to play all overbends "straight on" without any momentum to help you get the reeds to cooperate.

An overbend that's hard to play is difficult to incorporate into your playing. It can sound wrong. For this reason, some folks don't like overbends or they find them limiting.

Altered Tunings

Another way to play those missing notes is to alter the tuning. Country Tuning, Melody Maker, Minor tunings, Powerbender all allow you to play extra bends and add extra notes that are not there in Standard Richter.

To alter a tuning, you tune one or more reeds up or down so as to play a different note.

For example in Country tuning (major seventh) the draw five reed is raised one semitone. Instead of playing the flat seventh it plays the major seventh. By raising the pitch of the 5 draw reed, you are adding room between the blow and draw note. You can play the flat seventh note as a draw bend where in Standard Richter there is no available draw bend on hole five.

It's relatively easy to master the technique of raising or lowering the pitch of a reed. You can add weight to the tip of the reed in the form of BluTak or solder to lower the pitch. If you are lowering a pitch by a full semitone or more, I suggest you add weight to the tip to make most of the change and then file some material from the base of the reed to fine-tune the pitch. You can safely drop the pitch of a reed five semitones this way without risking damage to the reed or worrying too much about affecting the response and tone of the reed.

To raise the pitch of a reed, you must file material from the tip of the reed. Although some folks can raise a reed by four semitones this way, I find that more than one or two semitones is enough of a challenge and the reed's response and tone starts to degrade beyond that.

Reed swapping is also an effective way to alter tunings if you have access to extra reeds of the correct dimensions and are adept at reed replacement.

Altered tuning can be simple or you can completely overhaul the note layout. Remember that the soulful connection between the player and the instrument relies on those rich-sounding dual-reed draw bends on the low end of the harmonica. Alterations that turn those bent notes into straight notes take away the fun for me.

Each altered tuning means you will be learning a new breath pattern. At first players are apprehensive because they don't want to "forget" or lose their ability to play Standard Richter licks.

Don't worry! There's enough room in your brain to assimilate all of these breath patterns. Trust your muscle memory. A common mistake is to devote all practice time to the new altered tuning so as to master it quickly. I suspect any degradation in playing Standard Richter at that point is due to having stopped practising those licks rather than the "new" licks kicking out the old licks from your brain.

The net effect of mastering a new altered tuning is that you will become a better musician in all the tunings you have learned.


Yet another way to play the missing notes is half-valving. A valve will isolate a reed so that you can bend one reed down without the other reed being allowed to participate. It's a single-reed bend like an overblow but you are using a valve to stop one of the reeds from moving rather than using resonance.

Take the covers off a harmonica and mute the six draw reed with your finger. Play the six blow and use your embouchure to bend the pitch down. You will be able to hit the missing note between five draw and six blow using that technique. With a valve over the six draw reed, you are able to play the blow, draw, draw bend and blow bent notes but you will not be able to play the overbend.

Half-valving can also let you intonate the pitch of some notes by shading them as you play them. You can use this to add expression to your playing.

Half-valving refers to only using one valve. If both reed slots were valved (full valving) you would not be able to play any bends.

In Standard Richter, half-valving means that there will be a valve on the inside of the hole on the draw plate on holes 1-6 and on top of the blow plate on holes 7-10.

Valves can be made of various materials. Ultrasuede is a resilient material. The valve is glued to the reed plate starting from the rivet tip on the side of the plate that's opposite from the reed.

Cut a thin strip so that it covers the width of the slot well. Trim it so that it leaves the first few millimeters of the tip of the slot free. You don't need to cover the whole slot for half-valving to work and leaving the tip free can help prevent the tone from being affected too much by the presence of a valve. It can also help prevent sticking of the valve.

All three methods (overbends, altered tunings, half-valving) are valid and used by many players. Pick your favourite!

Or not; you can make lots of good, soulful music with the Standard Richter layout.

Altering Standard Richter to Wilde Tuning

Wilde tuning is for playing rock.

With this altered tuning all bends are draw bends; there are no blow bends or overdraws. You can overblow any missing notes to play the chromatic scale. This tuning shares that feature with Brendan Power's Powerbender tuning.

If exclusive draw bending is the reason you are exploring Wilde tuning, I suggest you take a good look at PowerBender because it is a lot more versatile, allowing you to play many positions. And it works with many styles of music.

How to make a PowerBender harp.

Here is the Wilde tuning note layout.

Holes 1-2-3-4-5 are the same as Standard Richter. Six reeds are re-tuned and two pairs are swapped to provide the note layout.

You can order pre-tuned Wilde harps but sometimes the fastest and most economical way to go is to convert a Standard Richter harmonica. The conversion to Wilde is a pretty big job. Notes need to be lowered by up to five semitones and one needs to be raised by two semitones.

Here is a visual aid to the modification:

These note changes can have an impact on how well the reeds respond but this is nothing that can't be fixed with a little reed adjustment.

Since reed adjustment will impact tuning, where do you start? The best strategy is to make the coarse tuning adjustments before you do reed work.

Here is a sensible method for getting this done with the least amount of wasted time and effort:

Alteration checklist:
1- Swap blow/draw reeds 9 and 10.
2- Correct factory defects.
3- Perform coarse tuning adjustment. Lower pitches using BluTak or Solder. (See semitone offsets in the image above)
4- Perform other customizing and improvements including reed work.
5- Perform fine tuning. Identify Major Chords for Just or Compromise tuning. (See scale interval to help you achieve harmonic tuning.)

Tuning the chords for harmony is an area where you can do much better than the factory tuned Wilde harmonicas. Even if you don't tune the five draw to 7-limit, you will still be able to achieve sweet and strong harmonies throughout most of the harp. This will add power to chords, splits and octaves.

Enjoy your new Wilde tuned harmonica!

RoCk On!


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