(video) Plinking thinking

Plinking is an essential part of gapping and reed work. Here are a few things you were never told about plinking.

How hard should you plink? How fast? How often? How do you hold the plate as you plink? What should you listen for?

(video) Flattening the draw reed plate

Here's local harmonica player Wayne Riley ( flattening the draw reed plate on a stock Manji harmonica.

Flattening the draw reed plate is the easiest thing you can do to get a dramatic increase in performance.

(video) Basic Tool Kit for Basic Diatonic Harmonica Adjustments

This kit is for those who like to spend ten minutes or less per harmonica on gapping, tuning and other adjustments.

You don't need to be a customizing whiz! These are the tools you need to get the essential things done and keep you playing.

Get the kit here

This kit provides what you need to work on harps anywhere.
Use this kit to:
-Adjust reed shape and gap
-Fix tuning troubles without having to take apart your harp!
-Fix Reed Centering
-Replace lost screws

-Solid brass reed shaping tool
-Five Cent Tuning Tool™
-Multi-purpose Reed Wrench/Tuner/Support Tool and Plinker
-Small assortment of harmonica screws

(video) Overblows and harps

Here are a few thoughts on overblows and harmonicas. These ideas are relevant to both setting up and playing overblows on the diatonic harmonica.

- Overblows, overdraws, overbends are just like regular bends. The same thing that causes a regular note to bend causes the note to overbend.

- Air flow makes the reeds move and resonance affects the frequency (pitch). This is basic to how the harmonica works.

- Resonance can make a reed stand still. Resonance is kinetic energy and it can greatly affect the frequency of a reed.

- Resonance has a strong effect on both reeds when regular bends are played. Regular bends are double reed bends and overblows are single reed bends - they have a different behavior and sound.

- Resonance has a weaker effect on the closing reed than the opening reed during an overblow. If you can't hold and overblow note, it's likely because the reed that's supposed to stand still is not standing still.

- There are several kinds of overblow. Which is your favorite?

- It’s technique, but it’s also the harp. You need technique to play overbends but you also need a harp that will respond to your playing.

A new take on embossing

"...Here's how you do it: Only emboss half the slot...."

Embossing is SO misunderstood.

Embossing decreases the amount of space between the reed and the slot. It's as simple as that!

Why do it?

- You want to improve response
- You want a little more volume
- You like a bright sound

Why would you not want to emboss?

- You don't like bright tone

Embossing doesn't fix anything!

Do not ever try to fix a problem with embossing. If a note doesn't play well, spending 30 seconds embossing won't help. And when you are not happy with the result and decide to emboss some more - this time with more force - you will probably overdo it and end up damaging the reed plate.

To fix a misbehaving reed, make the harp airtight and fix the shape of the reed. Once you have done that, you can try embossing to add a little extra juice.

Embossing isn't just for overblows!

It would be a challenge to set up a harp for overblows without embossing, but that doesn't mean you can't take advantage of the benefits of embossing on a general-purpose harmonica.

Also, in of itself, embossing doesn't make your harp play overblows any easier. Not to any useful degree anyway... Again, the shape of the reeds counts for a whole lot more.

The Dark side of embossing

Embossing can cause problems. If you overdo it, your reeds will start to sound thin and the high overtones will become more present. As you continue to emboss, you will start to hear the reeds buzz. If you continue further, you will make the reed seize.

None of this causes permanent damage; you can undo embossing. But if you force the reed while trying to fix the damage, you can wreck your harp.

Embossing a harp is a job that takes a few minutes. If you are spending more time fixing the damage than you are spending time embossing, you are doing something wrong! I'm not saying you should rush your work but if you are spending hours embossing, you should probably re-think your process.

Less is more: Get the advantages without the drawbacks!

Gentle embossing can offer you a lot of the advantages of embossing while avoiding 99 per cent of the drawbacks.

Here's how you do it: Only emboss half the slot.

Find a round metal object like a 10mm chrome-plated socket driver, or the tip of one of my pin vises.

Hold the object halfway down the slot and press down. Press about as hard as you press a touch screen phone. Move the round object towards the free end of the slot (towards the reed tip).

You won't be able to see the little ridge you have created on the inside of the slot just by looking at the reed plate. Feel the inside of the slot with your fingernail. Pick at the side to see if you have created a little ridge on the inside of the slot. If you feel nothing run the round object down the slot again, this time with a little more force.

Do it until you have used just enough force to create a ridge (or burr) on the inside of the slot. Repeat the process on all the other slots one at a time starting from the halfway point and going to the free end.

On the weighted low reeds, you may need to position the reed plate over the edge of a table so that the tip of the reed can "peek" out the bottom of the slot as you move your round tool towards the tip.

Next, check your work. Use this hand position and angle the reed plate to look through the slots:

The shortened view of the slot is a low-tech way to zoom in and see how close the reed is to the sides of the slot. No extra equipment required (Microscope, Light Table, etc...)

Push the tip of the reed through the slot while you are looking to see if the reed touches any part of the sides. You'll also see if the reed is off-center as you do this. If you embossed with gentle finger pressure you should still have lots of room on either side of the slot.

If you overdid it in some areas, you will see it using this view. You may also notice the reed has a prickly/buzzy sound or maybe it doesn't even plink? To fix it, push the ridge of metal back. Use gentle force in the areas you need to target so that you don't completely undo your work.

Use a round piece of metal like a reed tool or a safety pin.

Since you only worked on the front half of the slot, you should be able to get your tool in position from the under side of the slot. The reed won't be in your way, it will simply be pushed up a little. Plink the reed a few times and re-check.

Now, put the harp back together and play it! You should notice more responsiveness and louder sound.

The reed shape, gap and tuning should be unchanged after embossing this way because we only worked on the free end of the slot. Not bad for a few minute's work! This method is a real time-saver!

If you are interested in embossing to the fullest possible limits, try Full Slot Embossing.

FIXED! One in a thousand WORST harmonica reed plates!

A harp player bought one of my combs from Rockin Ron's and had a little trouble getting the harp to play well. Here's why!

Just like maybe one-in-ten harps plays really well from the factory, this one suffered from defect and was the worst of the bunch.

It's fixed, now.

This particular harmonica is a Delta Frost but these defects happen with EVERY brand of harp. There are no exceptions. The only harmonica free of defects is a proper custom harmonica.

My combs are here:

My tools are here:

USA harpists, find my products at Rockin Ron's:

Reed work PDF download

There are only two or three ways to change the shape or curvature of a reed. There are several ways to perform each of them and of course you can combine them in a million ways.

Here's a reference to doing reed work. It's a PDF file you can download for free! Click the image to download...


(The black arrows indicate pressure applied with a tool and the pink round spots indicate counter-pressure applied with your finger.)

Curve the tip down:

Curve the tip up:

Lower base of reed:

This is a description of how I get the proper view of the shape of the reeds:

Replace harmonica reeds just like you change strings on a guitar.

"You don't need to throw away a harmonica because of a blown reed."

Part 1
See Part 2: How to replace a reed on a diatonic harmonica.

Reeds fracture with use. You don't need to throw away the harmonica because of a blown reed. Just like broken guitar strings can be replaced, so can harmonica reeds. In fact, you can change a harmonica reed in the same amount of time it takes to change a guitar string (maybe less!)

Reeds don't usually break off, they just drop out of tune because of microscopic fractures. If you play hard you will blow out reeds faster. Plink a fractured reed over and over and you will hear the pitch drop until the reed just stops moving - and eventually falls off - because the fracture grows to the point where it's not microscopic anymore.

Harmonica reed replacement is simple but it's not always easy. Replacing harmonica reeds is a bit of a paradox.

The chicken or the egg? Where do you start?

The first thing you need to do to a reed that has been freshly replaced is adjust its curvature so that it plays well. This is much more involved than just gapping. Re-shaping reeds takes some time and practice to learn. As part of the learning process, you will probably damage some reeds and they will have to be replaced.

That's why replacing reeds is an advanced skill.

To guarantee the new reed sounds right, there are a few things to consider:

1- Fastening a reed onto a reed plate can do some funny things to its shape. You need to be able to check and correct the shape of a reed to have success 100 per cent of the time. See this reed work reference.

2- Taking a reed off and putting one back on may also bend the reed plate if you are not careful. It's important to try not to bend the plate as you work. You must check for flatness once you are done and straighten a crooked reed plate.

3- Don't forget about tuning. The new reed will probably be out of tune - sometimes factory-new reed are out by as much as 50 cents! You will need to tune it.

Most harmonicas use rivets to secure the reeds to the plate because it's very cost-effective to mass-produce them that way. But there are other - better - ways of fastening a reed to the plate. There is nothing special about using a rivet.

A reed that's attached to the plate with a screw will not sound any different than a reed attached with a rivet. What's important is that the reed is secure, straight and centered and has a proper shape/curve.

Using a screw will allow you to get the reed perfectly positioned and won't warp the reed plate. You can guarantee success 100 per cent of the time.

Suzuki reeds are welded onto the plate. They don't use rivets. You don't need to buy a welding torch. The reeds can be removed easily by twisting the rivet pad just like rotating a reed with a reed wrench. To fasten the new reed, you drill a hole into the new reed and into the plate and secure the replacement reed with a screw.

Where do you start? Just jump on in!

See Part 2: How to replace a reed on a diatonic harmonica for the procedure.

Part 2

How to replace a reed on a diatonic harmonica

Part 2

Part 1: Replace reeds on a harmonica just like you change strings on a guitar.

The procedure at a glance:

- Find a new reed.

- Remove the BAD reed and flatten the reed plate.

- Tap the plate to receive an M1.4 screw and flatten the plate.

- Put the reed in the slot and insert the screw all the way without tightening it.

- Use a reed wrench to position the rivet pad so that the reed is straight and centered. Tighten the screw.

- Snip off the other end of the screw with flush cut pliers and debur.

- Check the flatness of the plate.

- Adjust the reed shape and tuning.


I offer a kit with all the specialty items you need to replace reeds on all brands of harmonicas.

Reed replacement kit


Here's how you replace reeds:

Find a new reed. You can use a new reed from the factory (contact Hohner or Seydel) or scavenge a reed from a donor plate.

Reed scavenging tip: The 4 Draw on a D harp is the same reed as 4 Blow on an E harp. Also, on Marine Band harmonicas the same reed is a 6 Draw on a G or the 6 Blow on an A.

The new or scavenged reed's rivet pad has a hole in it but it's too small to clear the screw we will use.

You can enlarge the hole using a rotary tool with a diamond tip reamer. This method works on Brass and Stainless reeds. See the video below.

Alternatively, you can drill a 1/16" hole in the reed's rivet pad using a drill press. If you are working on a brass reed, you can do it by hand using a good quality drill bit and a pin vice. Hold the reed onto a wood block to drill.

Please note that Suzuki reeds do not have a rivet and you will need to make your own hole using a drill press. I do not recommend using a hand drill of a rotary tool for this.

This is the reed replacement spine and removal pin. The spine is the foundation we will use to remove rivets and to flatten both the reed plate and the rivet pad. The removal pin is made of hardened and tempered steel.

Place the reed removal spine on the brick or anvil. You CANNOT place it straight on a table or counter - the table surface will absorb too much kinetic energy.

A brick or anvil will make sure all the force is directed to the reed removal spine. This is the best way to avoid bending the reed plate and wrecking your harmonica.

Question: "What kind of brick should I use?"
Answer: A heavy one.

Place the reed on the flat part of the reed removal spine.

Position the flattening pin on top of the rivet pad and strike it with a hammer.

The new reed is ready to be installed.

Remove the BAD reed. Position the rivet head upside down in the hole in the spine.

Hold the pin over the rivet tip and strike the pin straight down.

It's best to strike two or three times with light force so that you don't have to drive the pin any deeper than necessary.

The rivet should fall through the hole. Discard the old reed and rivet.

Flip the plate around and place the rivet hole over the solid part of the spine.

Place the flattening pin on top of the plate and strike it with the hammer to flatten.

The hole is now flat. This is essential for the reed to go in straight and be well positioned.

Dip the M1.4 tap in mineral oil and tap the rivet hole. The tap cuts the screw thread into the hole. I don't use self-tapping screws. Self-tapping screws aren't sharp and require more force - we don't want to bend or warp the reed plate. Tapping the hole is an extra step but it's the safest and most precise way to guarantee success.

Flatten the reed plate against the spine once again with the flattening pin.

Place your finger behind the empty slot.

Lay the GOOD reed in the slot. Let the tip of the reed touch your finger and the inside of the slot. Tucked away like that, it won't move around as you insert the screw.

Pinch the reed and the slot and put the screw in.

Turn the screw until it's all the way in but not tight.

With the reed held in place loosely, hold the reed plate up to the light and look through the slot. Use a reed wrench to move the reed up, down, left or right as needed. Don't worry about rotation, just center the middle of the reed pad. Pinch it in place and tighten the screw.

I use long screws because they are much easier to handle. The long end of the screw needs to be cut.

Use flush cut pliers to cut the end of the screw off.

Debur the end of the screw using sandpaper or an engraver.

Tighten again and center the reed one last time. The reed should feel snug.

Use The F-Tool to straighten the reed plate as needed. Flatsand the draw plate to take care of the tip of the screw.

Check and adjust the reed shape. Try to make the reed straight when passing through the slot.

Look at the shape of the reed from the side. Focus your attention on the light you see through the slot as you push the reed down through the slot.

Change the shape of a reed by focusing pressure with a tool onto a specific spot. Use a finger to provide counter pressure from the other side of the reed. Plink the reed about ten times after every change you make to its shape.

When in doubt remember that if the tip of the reed is curved down and enters the slot before the rest of the reed, you will not (never, ever) get a good result.

See this reed work reference.

Tune the reed using this method: Tuning page


Got into trouble?

Problem: There is no way I can align the reed!
Solution: Enlarge the clearance hole in the rivet pad. Use a 5/64" bit or even a 3/32" bit. Flatten the pad.

Problem: I stripped the thread!
Solution: Use a larger screw. Tap the hole with a larger tap. Use M1.6. You can also step it up to M2. On the blow plate, you can use a screw and a nut, too.

Updated Reed Replacement kit (2015/12/20):

New Flattening Pin Design: The square flattening pin shown in the instructions has been replaced with a round pin with two different ends.

One end is to be used to flatten reeds and reed plates and the other is struck with the hammer. The flattening end has been hardened and tempered.

Hardening and Tempering steel

I visited Alchemy Studios in Bath, Ontario to meet Mitchell Elliott. He was kind enough to show me how to harden and temper steel to make some tools.

Until now, I have been limited in the kinds of tools I can offer. I haven't been offering a reed replacement solution because I haven't been able to make a proper pin for reed removal. What I have been able to come up with until now has been too small and quite brittle. Now that's changed.

These pins are hardened, tempered and one is also polished.

This is for reed removal:

The pin is easy to align. Its tip is small to drive out the rivet without warping the reed plate. It's hard enough to last a lifetime. It's tempered so it won't shatter.

I'll be putting together a complete reed replacement kit which will include an M1.4 tap, pin vise and Stainless Steel M1.4 screws. The kit will be available soon. Stay tuned!


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